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Textile dictionary

Your guide to words you don't know

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The non-profit association Vesti la natura provides several free guides specially created to promote a more ethical and sustainable form of fashion among consumers and entrepreneurs.

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Dictionary index

Dictionary ABC

Textile dictionary from letter A to C. Use the table of contents to quickly jump from letter to letter, or use the key combination CTRL + F to open your browser's search bar and quickly find the word you are looking for.

A

Color Abrasion: color changes in localized areas of a garment due to differential wear, such as the knees of blue jeans. Often evident in the cross-dyed shades of blends where durable press treatments are applied. Learn more about color abrasion

Acetate: a produced fiber formed from a cellulose compound refined from cotton waste and / or the wood pulp of mulberry trees. This material is then combined with acedic acid and extruded through a spinneret and then hardened. Learn more about acetate

Acid Washed: means a product that has been washed with acid. Acid wash is a process that alters the color of indigo denim fabrics by treating them with chemicals. Learn more about acid washed

Acrylic: a fiber produced derived from polyacrylonitrile. Its main properties include a soft, wool-like hand, machine washable and dryable, excellent color retention. The solution dyed versions have excellent resistance to sunlight and chlorine degradation. Learn more about acrylic

Alpaca: a natural fiber with long and fine hair obtained from the Alpaca sheep, a domesticated member of the llama family. The fiber is most commonly used in fabrics for dresses, coats and sweaters.

Duck (fabric): the name anatra (duck) covers a wide range of fabrics made with tightly intertwined threads. The fabric is usually cotton and is widely used in men's and women's trousers and children's play clothes. Learn more about the duck fabric

Angora: the hair of the Angora goat also known as Angora mohair. Angora can also apply to the fur of the angora rabbit. However, any clothing containing angora rabbit hair must be labeled as "angora rabbit hair".

Windproof: the ability of a fabric to be impermeable to wind and air. Learn more about windproof fabrics

Antibacterial (or antimicrobial): a fabric that has been chemically treated, a fiber created by incorporating the antibacterial chemical agent into the formula of the fiber, making it resistant or inhibiting the growth of micro organisms. Learn more about antibacterial fabrics

Anti-friction / anti-friction: a fabric that avoids skin irritation caused by repetitive rubbing in contact with the skin of multiple parts of the body. Learn more about anti-friction and anti-friction fabrics

Antistatic: a fiber or fabric that does not allow static electricity to build up when it is subjected to friction or rubbing. Learn more about antistatic fabrics

Antifungal: inhibits growth or kills fungi. Learn more about antifungal fabrics

Bulletproof: bulletproof, which is the ability of a textile material to prevent a bullet from entering the material. Learn more about bulletproof materials

AppleSkin: an artificial leatherette made using scraps of apple peels and cores. Learn more about AppleSkin.

Aramid: a fiber produced in which the fiber-forming substance is a long synthetic polyamide chain in which at least 85% of the amide bonds are attached directly to two aromatic rings. Aramid fabrics are very resistant to high temperatures and extreme external forces. Learn more about aramid fibers

Tapestry: a heavy, often handmade, ribbed fabric featuring an elaborate design depicting a historical or current pictorial display. The weft fabric design is made using colored yarns, which are worked back and forth on warp yarns visible on the back. Learn more about the tapestry

Quick drying: the ability of a fabric to dry quickly. Learn more about quick drying

Absorption: the ability of a fabric to absorb moisture. Absorbency is a very important property, which affects many other characteristics such as skin comfort, static electricity formation, shrinkage, stain removal, water repellency and wrinkle recovery. Learn more about absorbency

B

Bactericidal: kills bacteria. Learn more about antibacterial fabrics

Bacteriostatic: it does not necessarily mean that it kills bacteria, but it may simply slow their growth by maintaining a balance. Learn more about antibacterial fabrics

Ballistic: a thick woven fabric that is extremely abrasion resistant and tough; has a money of around 2000 and is used in clothing, backpacks and gear. Learn more about ballistic fabric

Bamboos: an artificial fabric made from the pulp of the bamboo plant, it is considered sustainable because the bamboo plant grows rapidly and does not require the use of herbicides and pesticides to thrive. Learn more about bamboo.

Closed off: an imperfection characterized by a ridge or mark that runs in the transverse or longitudinal directions of the tissue. Barrés can be caused by tension variations in the knitting process, poor quality yarns, problems during the finishing process. Learn more about the barré

Base layers: clothing in contact with your skin. The purpose of the base layer is to keep you warm / cool and dry. Learn more about the base layer

Cambric: a medium weight plain weave fabric, usually made of cotton or a cotton blend. End uses include blouses and dresses. Learn more about the batiste fabric

Battenberg: coarse form of Renaissance lace made by hand or machine from linen braid or ribbon and linen thread, assembled together to form various designs. Learn more about the battenberg

Bedford Cord: sturdy ribbed fabric with raised lines or cords produced from warp padding threads. It can be wool, silk, cotton, rayon or blended fibers. Warp pique is a lighter weight. First produced in America in New Bedford, Massachusetts, hence the name. Learn more about the bedford cord

bengal: a robust fabric with a warp surface with pronounced transverse ribs formed from bulky, coarse, folded yarns or rubber thread. Native to Bengal, India, it is mainly used in upholstery, mourning suits, and women's headdresses. When cut to the width of the ribbon, it is called grosgrain. Learn more about bengaline

Bioplastic: artificial materials made with natural, biodegradable or compostable raw materials. Learn more about bioplastic.

Biomimicry: the science that evaluates how plants and animals survive in their natural habitats and applies a similar process to designing functional clothing. Learn more about biomimicry

Body mapping: the strategic placement of component materials in the design and construction of garments to provide the best possible movement and balance to improve endurance or reduce wearer fatigue. Learn more about body mapping

Boucle: knitted or woven fabric with the characteristic ring or knitted surface that often resembles a spongy effect. The term also applies to a variety of ring, crimped, or slub yarns. In French, bouclé means "buckle" or "ring". Learn more about the bouclé

Brocade: a heavy and exquisite jacquard type fabric with an all-over embossed pattern or floral design. Common end uses include formal applications such as upholstery, drapery, and evening wear. Learn more about brocade

Buckram: pleated yarn canvas fabric with a stiff finish for use as clothing interlining or interfacing. Also used in millinery because it can be easily modeled by moistening it. Learn more about the Buckram

C

Hemp: the name of the natural fiber extracted from the homonymous plant and with which it is possible to make hemp fabric. Learn more about hemp.

Caucciù: a rubbery substance (latex) extracted from the plant called Hevea brasiliensis and with which it is possible to create a natural and biodegradable rubber. More information on caucciù.

Calendering: a process of passing fabrics between one or more rollers (or calenders), usually under carefully controlled heat and pressure, to produce a variety of surface effects or textures in a fabric such as high luster, glazing, embossing and moiré. Learn more about calendering

Calico: one of the oldest basic cotton fabrics on the market tracing its origin to Calcutta, India. Usually a plain, tightly woven, inexpensive cloth made in a solid color against a white or contrasting background. Mainly used for aprons, dresses, quilts, sportswear. Often interchangeable with percale, which is 80 square cotton. Learn more about calico

Candlewick: unbleached muslin sheet, sometimes called Kraft muslin, used as a base fabric on which a chenille effect is formed by applying wick loops (heavy yarns) which are then cut to give the blur effect and look of the cut thread of real chenille yarn. Learn more about candlewick

Carding: a process of opening and cleaning the textile fibers, usually cotton, which separates the fibers from each other, arranges them parallel, forms them into a thin ribbon and then condenses them into a single untwisted thread or bundle of continuous fibersnuo called "tape". Learn more about carding

Cashmere: a luxury fiber obtained from the Kashmir goat in Tibet, Mongolia, China, Iran, Iraq and India. Most commonly used in sweaters, shawls, suits, coats and dresses.

Cellulose: a white natural carbohydrate polymer found in the organic woody substances of most vegetation. It is the basic raw material necessary for the production of rayon and acetate fibers. About 96% of cotton is cellulose. Synthetic fibers based on petrochemical raw materials such as nylon, polyester, acrylics, etc. are often called "non-cellulosic". Learn more about cellulose

Chenille: a yarn characterized by a hair that protrudes on all sides, similar to a caterpillar. The yarn is produced by first weaving a fabric with a warp of cotton or linen and a filling of silk, wool or rayon. The warp yarns are taped into tightly beaten groups of tightly woven filler yarns. After weaving, the fabric is cut into strips between the yarn groups. Each cut produces a count chenille threadnuo, which is then twisted, creating the chenille yarn and giving the fleece the look on all sides of the yarn. Chenille yarn is mainly used for decorative fabrics, embroidery, tassels and carpets. Learn more about chenille

Challis: one of the softest fabrics made. Called from the American Indian term "shalee", which means soft. A light and soft plain weave fabric with a lightly brushed surface. The fabric is often printed, usually in a floral pattern. Challis is most often seen in cotton, wool or rayon fabrics. Learn more about the challis

Chambray: popular variety of cotton fabric in relatively square 80 × 76 count that combines colored warp and plain weave white padding yarns. Name derived from Cambrai, France, where it was first made. Learn more about chambray fabric

Whipped Cream: Six-sided fine mesh bobbin lace with outlined pattern in heavy thread. Learn more about chantilly

Chevrons: the term applies to herringbone textures or zigzag stripe prints. Learn more about chevron

Cloth: a light silk fabric, extremely transparent, airy and soft, with a simple weave, containing highly twisted filament yarns. The term “chiffon” implies thinness, diaphanous or gauze-like texture and softness. Originally made of silk, today it can be found in a wide variety of other fibers. The fabric is mainly used to make evening dresses and scarves. Learn more about chiffon

Chinos: classic “Army twill” fabric entirely in cotton made with two-ply combed yarns. Usually dyed in vat. Traditionally used for army uniforms, chino is now finding popularity in sports and workwear. Learn more about the chino

chintz: plain weave cotton fabric with a warp made of fine yarn and a coarser twist filling. Often printed with brightly colored flowers or stripes. Different types of glazes are used in the finishing process. Some glazes fade during washing, but others such as resin finishes are permanent. Unglazed chintz is called a cretonne. The end uses of the Chintz include drapery, lining, skirts and summer dresses and shirts. Learn more about the Chintz

Comfort (in fashion): comfort is a subjective feeling of "comfort" related to a specific garment or accessory. But it is still possible to measure it through technology. Learn more about comfort

Tights: tights are special socks made of nylon, which like gloves, hats, scarves and foulards, useful for covering different parts of the body, mainly serve to protect the lower abdomen, legs and obviously the feet from the cold, even if their purposes of use may be different. Learn more about tights

Cotton: a single-celled natural fiber that grows in the pod of the cotton plant. The fibers are typically half an inch to 2 inches long. Staple fibers longer than 1,5 inches, including Pima and Egyptian varieties, produce cotton fabrics of the highest quality.

Organic (or organic) cotton: cotton grown without pesticides from non-genetically modified plants using crop rotation and biological pest control instead of artificial pesticides and fertilizers. Learn more about organic cotton.

Combed Cotton: Combed cotton is an extremely soft version of cotton made using a manufacturing process whereby the cotton fibers are subjected to a special treatment before being spun into yarn. Combed cotton is softer and more durable than conventional cotton because shorter, more brittle fibers are removed during the combing process. Also, the ironed fibers are closer together after combing, making the combed cotton fabric less likely to fray. As a result, combed cotton products are also slightly more expensive than traditional cotton products.

Comfort Stretch: the term given to the freedom of movement experienced in wearing a garment, or the engineered elasticity in a yarn through a mechanical elastic construction.

Natural dyes: dyes based on minerals, vegetable or animal raw materials. The most common types include Indigo, Cochineal, Lac, Logwood, Madder, Munjeet, Catechu, Brazilwood, Osage Orange, Fustic, Weld, Tannin, and Quercitron. Learn more about natural dyes

Vegetable dyes: dyes derived from insects or from the earth, including dyes based on plants and bark, which include madder root, indigo, milkweed, pomegranate, Osage, cutch and cochineal. These also include natural dyes made from berries, roots and bark. They are not color fast like chrome dyes and produce unusual shades of blue, green, and other colors. They contain no synthetic chemicals and, due to their natural ingredients, tend to fade faster than chromium dyes.

Mineral dyes: a natural dye based on minerals, including ocher, limestone, manganese, cinnabar, azurite and malachite.

Compression Stretch: the name given to the broad elongation of the fibers.

Core Yarn (or middle yarn): a yarn in which one type of fiber is twisted or wrapped around another fiber which acts as a core. Base yarns are often used to make stretch fabrics where the core is spandex or rubber and the outer wrapped fiber is a textured woven fiber such as polyester or nylon.

Crepe: a variety of lightweight fabrics featuring a rippled surface, achieved through the use of hard twist yarns, chemical treatments, weaving, construction, or some form of embossing or surface treatment. Now available in an unlimited variety of fibers and blends. Learn more about crepe

Crocking: rubbing dye from a fabric. Crocking can be the result of lack of penetration of the dyeing agent, use of wrong dyes or dyeing procedures, or lack of proper washing procedures and finishing treatments after the dyeing process.

Cruelty Free: it is equivalent to stating that a product and its ingredients are not of animal origin, nor have they been tested on animals. Learn more about cruelty free fashion

Ergonomic seams: this apparel construction technology aims to maximize comfort and ease of movement. The key feature of this sewing technology is that the seams are made ergonomically. Therefore, the seams flow according to the natural movements of the body, regardless of the type of activity carried out by the wearer. The seams are positioned away from potential pressure points, in order to maximize comfort and movement.

Dictionary DEF

Textile dictionary from letter D to F. Use the index of contents to quickly jump from letter to letter, or use the key combination CTRL + F to open the search bar of your browser and quickly find the word you are looking for.

D

Damascus: a shiny jacquard fabric, usually made of linen, cotton, rayon, silk or blends. The models are flat and reversible. The fabric is often used in napkins, tablecloths, curtains and upholstery. Learn more about damask

DENIER (DEN or DENARI): a system for measuring the weight of a filament fiber countsnuo. The lower the number, the finer the fiber; the higher the number, the heavier the fiber. Numerically, a denarius is the equivalent of the weight in grams of 9.000 meters of filament fiber accountsnuo. Learn more about deniers

Denim: a solid 2 × 1 or 3 × 1 thick twill weave fabric with a whitish tinge achieved using white filler yarns with colored warp yarns. Heavier denims, usually blue, are used for dungarees, workwear, and sportswear for men and women. Lighter denims have a softer finish and are available in a variety of colors and patterns for casual wear. Learn more about denim

UV degradation: the breakage of fibers or fabrics when exposed to ultraviolet rays.

Dobbie: a decorative weave, characterized by small figures, usually geometric, which intertwine in the structure of the fabric. Dobby can be of any weight or firmness, with yarns ranging from very fine to coarse and fluffy. Standard dobby fabrics are generally flat and relatively fine or sheer. However, some heavy dobby fabrics are available for home decor and heavy clothing. Learn more about the dobby

Donegal Tweed: a medium to heavy weave, plain or twill weave in which colored yarns are woven. End uses include winter coats and dresses. Learn more about donegal tweed

Double fabric: two fabrics are woven simultaneously on the loom, one on top of the other. In the weaving process, the two layers of fabric are held together using binding threads. The woven patterns in each layer of fabric can be similar or completely different. Learn more about double fabric

Double mesh: a fabric knitted on a circular knitting machine using interlocking loops and a double stitch on a double needle loom to form a double thickness fabric. Learn more about double knitting

Double texture: a woven fabric structure made by intertwining two or more series of warp threads with two or more series of filler threads. The most common double weave fabrics are made using a total of four or five sets of yarns. Learn more about the double plot

Drapeable: the ability of a fabric to hang softly in loose flexible folds. Learn more about drapability

Durable Water Repellent (DWR): chemical treatment applied to fabrics to ensure that they maintain their ability to repel water even in extreme rain conditions. Learn more about DWR 

E

Econyl: a synthetic nylon made with fishing nets recovered from the oceans, industrial plastic residues and discarded carpets. Learn more about Econyl.

Elasticity: the ability of a fiber or fabric to return to its original length, shape or size after an extension. Learn more about elasticity

Ergonomics: the study to improve the design of a garment by improving the comfort, performance or health of the wearer.

F

Fault: a shiny, soft, fine-ribbed silk-like fabric made from woven cotton, silk or man-made fibers.

Fast fashion: Fashionable clothing designed and produced quickly and economically to guide and satisfy consumer purchases. Fast fashion translates into overproduction and waste estimated in millions of tons of fabric and clothing per year. Learn more about Fast Fashion

Felt: from the Anglo-Saxon word meaning to filter, cloth is a dull and compact wool material, of which melton could be cited as an example. A non-woven fabric made of wool, hair or fur, and sometimes in combination with some processed fibers, where the fibers are worked together in a process that uses heat, moisture and pressure to form a compact material.

Natural fibers: they are extracted exclusively from natural raw materials such as plants, or taken from animals. Learn more about natural fibers.

Artificial fibers: they are made in the laboratory using a natural raw material (cellulose) mixed with synthetic chemicals. Learn more about man-made fibers.

Synthetic fibers: made in the laboratory by man, they use only synthetic chemicals especially derived from petroleum. Learn more about synthetic fibers.

Animal fibers: the term used to distinguish natural fibers obtained from animals. Includes alpaca, angora, goat hair, camel hair, cashmere, cow hair, fur, guanaco, pig hair, huarizo, llama, mohair, rabbit hair.

Fiber: the basic entity, natural or wrought, which is woven into yarns and then used in the production of a fabric.

Hydrophilic fibers: fibers that absorb water easily, take longer to dry and require more ironing. These fibers denote a finish that improves comfort.

Hydrophobic fibers: fibers that do not have the ability to absorb water. These fibers denote a finish normally applied to create water repellent products.

Hollow filament fibers: filament fibers accountsnuo which have a central vacuum created through the introduction of air or other gas into the polymer solution, or by melt spinning through specially designed spinnerets.

Glass fiber: a very resistant inorganic fiber, but with poor flexibility and poor abrasion resistance. Glass does not burn and does not conduct electricity. It is impervious to insects, mold and sunlight. Today, the main use of fiberglass is in industrial applications such as insulation or reinforcement of composite structures.

Staple fibers: short fibers, typically half an inch to 18 inches long. Wool, cotton and linen exist only as staple fibers. The staple fibers produced are cut to a specific length by the conti filament fibernuo. Usually staple fiber is cut into lengths ranging from 2 inches to 8 inches in length. A group of staple fibers is twisted together to form a yarn, which is then woven or knitted.

Yarn: A yarn is made by taking a group of short staple fibers, which have been cut from the longest filaments, by twisting these fibers together to form a single yarn, which is then used for weaving or knitting of fabrics.

Filament: a produced fiber of indefinite (continuous) length, extruded from the spinneret during the fiber production process.

Spinning: this final operation in the production of a natural yarn consists in drawing, twisting and winding the newly spun yarn on a device such as a spool, spool, spool, tube. The spinning process is the extrusion of a spinning solution into a coagulation bath, heated bladder or cooling area to form a contiguous filament.nuo.

Ring spinning: a spinning system, which uses a ring spinning machine that stretches the wick, twists the yarn and winds it onto the spool so that itnuo and simultaneous in a single operation.

Yarn: a thread countnuo of textile fibers created when a group of individual fibers are twisted.

Braided yarn: a thread covered with another thread.

Textured yarns: create gathers, loops and modify the yarn to increase coverage, abrasion resistance, insulation, heat resistance or moisture absorption and to provide a different surface texture. Most of today's polyester filaments are textured.

Stretch yarns: synthetic filament yarn accountsnuo which have been altered through special treatments or modifications to give them elasticity. Techniques include twisting and unrolling, using air jets, filling containers, knife blades, folding, heat regulation, curling, steaming, or looping. The use of these yarns gives the fabrics elasticity and comfort.

Core-Spun Yarns: they consist of a basic yarn, with an outer shell of loose fiber not twisted into yarn. Polyester filament is often wrapped with an outer layer of cotton to provide the strength and resilience of polyester. Sewing thread, home textiles and clothing are made from these yarns.

Filament accountsnuo: a long thread countnuo and unbroken of fiber extruded from a spinneret in the form of a monofilament. Most of the fibers produced such as nylon, polyester, rayon and acetate are made in the form of conti filamentnuo.

Finish: all the processes through which a fabric passes from production to preparation for the market. These include bleaching, dyeing, printing, heat setting, etc.

Heat set finish (heat sealing): a heat-finishing process that will stabilize many fiber fabrics so that there will be no subsequent changes in shape or size. The heat setting is used to permanently impart a crease, a finish that will remain even after repeated washes.

Fiberfills: specially designed fibers used as filling material in pillows, mattresses, mattress fillings, sleeping bags, quilts and outdoor garments.

Flame Resistant: fabrics treated with special chemical agents or finishes to make them resistant to combustion. Today many fabrics achieve this property by using fibers that have this property incorporated directly into the polymer. A fabric is considered flame resistant if it passes specific tests.

Flannel: a medium weight, plain or twill weave fabric typically made of cotton, cotton or wool blend. The fabric has a very soft hand, brushed on both sides to lift the ends of the fiber from the base fabric and create a soft, fuzzy surface. End uses include shirts, blanket pajamas, and sheets.

Flocking: a type of embossed decoration applied to the surface of a fabric in which a sticker is printed on the fabric. The finely chopped fibers are applied by dusting, aerosol or electrostatic charge. The fibers adhere only to areas where the adhesive has been applied and excess fibers are removed by mechanical means.

Scarf: a light twill weave fabric, made with filament yarns such as silk, acetate, polyester, with a small all-over printed motif on a solid color background. The fabric is often used in men's ties.

Oven: closed heating chamber used by apparel manufacturers for the purpose of applying heat to a garment to set, or cure (bake), a durable pressure finish.

Lining: a fabric that is used to cover the inside of a garment to provide a finished look. Generally, the upholstery consists of a smooth, shiny fabric.

Fruitleather: an artificial leatherette made using mango fruit. Learn more about Fruitleather.

Phthalates: these chemicals are salts or esters of phthalic acid. Esters are commonly used as plasticizers to soften polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and increase the flexibility, transparency, durability and longevity of plastic products. However, if ingested, phthalates can cause kidney and liver damage. Due to these health problems they are now being eliminated from many products in the United States, Canada and the European Union.

Fungicide: kills fungi.

Dictionary GHIJK

Textile dictionary from letter G to K. Use the table of contents to quickly jump from letter to letter, or use the key combination CTRL + F to open your browser's search bar and quickly find the word you are looking for.

G

Wales: in a knitted fabric, the series of loops that are formed by a single needle, which runs vertically or longitudinally in a knitted fabric.

Gabardine: tightly woven, twill, combed fabric with a slight diagonal line on the right side. Wool gabardine is known as a workwear fabric. Polyester, cotton, rayon and various blends are also used in the production of gabardine.

Gauze: a thin, transparent plain weave fabric made of cotton, wool, silk, rayon or other woven fibers. End uses include curtains, clothing, seals, and surgical dressings. Learn more about gauze

Georgette: a light and transparent fabric, often made of silk or with woven fibers such as polyester, with a crepe surface, in which the yarns are twisted in both directions in the weft. End uses include dresses and blouses.

Geotextiles: Fiber materials manufactured in a variety of fabric structures and used in a variety of civil engineering applications.

Embossing: a calendering process, in which fabrics are engraved with the use of rollers heated under pressure, to produce a raised design on the surface of the fabric.

Gray Goods: an unfinished fabric, freshly removed from a knitting machine or loom, which has not received dry or wet finishing operations.

Welded shell: the outer layer of a garment welded in place, such as a jacket.

H

hard shells: an abrasion resistant outer fabric that provides protection from the environment.

heather: a yarn that is spun using pre-dyed fibers. These fibers are blended together to give a distinctive look. For example, black and white can be mixed together to create a gray melange yarn. The term heather can also be used to describe fabric made with melange yarns.

Heather Mixed or Blend: color combinations, solution dyed to provide a mottled or melange type of wool yarn such as tweed, cheviot, shetland yarn, etc.

Herringbone (Herringbone Twill): a variation of the twill weave construction in which the twill is inverted, or broken up, at regular intervals, producing a zigzag effect.

High Lofts: term given to a fiber structure that contains more air than fibers. It is a high, low density material that is used in applications such as filler fibers, insulation, etc.

Houndstooth Check: a variation of the twill weave construction in which a broken checked effect is produced by a variation in the pattern of intertwined threads, using at least two different colored threads. This checked pattern is often used in worsted, wool, etc.

I

Water repellent: fabrics that have been treated with a finish that causes them to lose water and resist water penetration, but are still permeable to air. Treatments can include coatings in wax, resins, silicones and fluorine derivatives. These treatments do not close the fabric, while the waterproof finishes do.

Filling: in a woven fabric, the thread runs from the selvedge to the selvedge at right angles to the warp. Each transverse length is called a pick. In the weaving process, the filler thread is carried by the shuttle or another type of thread carrier.

Waterproof: a term applied to fabrics whose pores have been closed and, therefore, do not allow the passage of water or air.

Waterproof and breathable (WP / BR): this special fabric resists the passage of liquids through the fabric, but allows the passage of water vapor, so that it is comfortable when made into a garment.

Encapsulation: A process in which the fibers of a fabric are coated with a filmy substance to create certain high-performance qualities, such as breathability.

Indigo: a dye with a characteristic blue color. The chemical compound that makes up the indigo dye is called indigo carmine. Historically, indigo has played an important role in the economies of many countries because natural blue dyes are rare. Among other uses, it is used in the production of denim fabrics for blue jeans.

Interfaces: fabrics used to support, reinforce and shape the fabrics in sewn products. Often placed between the lining and the outer fabric, it can be made with yarn or directly with fibers and can be woven, non-woven or knitted. Some interfaces are designed to be melted (stick to the heat of an iron), while others are meant to be sewn to fabric.

Interlining: 1. Insulating fabric, padded or stiffened, sewn to the wrong side of the lining or to the inside of the outer fabric for added weight and warmth. The interlining is mainly used to provide warmth to coats, jackets and outerwear. 2. Rigid linen canvas for men's coats.

Interlock: a special type of eight lock knitted fabric. The rib stitch variation, which generally resembles a 1 x 1 double ribbed fabric that is woven with crisscross sinker wales. Regular interlock (double knit) fabrics are thicker, heavier and more stable than single knit constructions. The fabric has a smooth surface on both sides and possesses good wearability qualities.

Reflective insulation: all materials emit energy by thermal radiation due to their temperature. The amount of energy or radiant heat reflected depends on the surface temperature. The higher the surface temperature, the greater the reflection. Reflective insulation technology has been used by NASA since the earliest satellites and continues to be used today as spacesuit insulation to protect every astronaut in space from extreme temperatures. The technology is effective at temperatures from -273 ° to 120 °.

Isolation: a material that protects against heat loss or cold penetration.

Thermal insulation: the ability of a fabric to retain heat.

J

jacquard: fabrics made using the Jacquard accessory on the loom. This accessory provides intricate versatility in designs and allows for individual control of each of the warp threads. Therefore, it is possible to make fabrics of almost any type or complexity. Brocade and damask are types of jacquard fabrics.

Jacquard Knit: a double weave fabric in which a Jacquard type of mechanism is used. This device individually controls needles or small groups of needles and allows you to create very complex stitches.

Sweater: the constant interweaving of the yarns in the jersey stitch produces a fabric with a smooth, flat face and a more structured but uniform back. Jersey fabrics can be produced on circular or flat weave knitting machines.

Jute: extracted from the homonymous plant coming mainly from India, this fiber is used to make the famous coffee bags, bags, ropes and threads for tying rugs and carpets. Learn more about jute

K

Kapok: a short, light, cotton-like plant fiber found in the pods of the Bombocaceae tree. Due to its brittleness, it is generally not spun. However, its buoyancy and moisture resistance make it ideal for use in pillows, mattresses and life jackets.

Knit-by-knit: a type of yarn texturing in which a crimped yarn is made by knitting the yarn into a fabric, then heat setting the fabric. The thread is then untangled from the fabric and used in this permanently rippled shape.

Knitting (Raschel): a versatile warp knit made with simple and jacquard motifs; fabrics are rougher than other warp knits. Raschel knitting machines have one or two sets of irons and up to thirty sets of guides that allow them to create a wide range of fabrics.

Dictionary LMN

Textile dictionary from letter L to N. Use the table of contents to quickly jump from letter to letter, or use the key combination CTRL + F to open your browser's search bar and quickly find the word you are looking for.

L

Wool: usually associated with fiber or fabric obtained from the fleece of sheep or lamb. However, the term "wool" can also be applied to all animal hair fibers, including hair from the cashmere or angora goat or hair fibers from camel, alpaca, llama or vicuña.

Organic wool: a form of wool taken exclusively from organic farms. Learn more about organic wool

Knitting: the art and science of building a fabric by weaving rings of yarn, through the use of needles and a "ring within a ring". The most essential unit in a knitted fabric is the loop or stitch. A vertical row of points is called WALE; the horizontal or transverse row of points is known as the COURSE. The number of threads per inch, measured on the fabric, depends on the number or size of the yarn used and the number of needles per inch in the machine. The two main classes of knitting are warp and weft.

Wool: lana nuoit has never been used before or recovered from spun, woven, knitted, felted, manufactured or used products.

Chlorinated wool: wool in the form of a fiber, yarn or fabric that is chemically treated to reduce the shrinkage of felting and increase the ability to absorb dyes.

Lamb's Wool: the first sheer wool clip from lambs up to eight months. Wool is soft, slippery and durable. It is used in high quality wool fabrics.

Lame: a woven fabric that uses flat metal threads, silver or gold, to create the design or background in the fabric.

Weight: have an airy texture. Used as light underwear in clothing for aerobic activities and cool weather.

Leno Weave (Doup): a construction of intertwined fabrics in which the resulting fabric is very transparent, yet strong. In this weave, two or more warp threads are twisted on each other as they are woven with the filler threads; thus ensuring a firm grip on the filler wire and preventing them from sliding out of position. The yarns work in pairs; one is standard warp yarn, the other is skeleton or doup yarn.

Linen: the plant from which the cellulosic flax fiber is obtained. It is possible to make clothing, accessories, curtains, upholstery, tablecloths and towels. A fabric made with linen fibers obtained from the inside of the woody stem of the flax plant. The length of the fiber varies from a few inches to a meter, without blurring, does not get dirty quickly and has a natural luster and stiffness. Linen fibers are much stronger and shinier than cotton. Linen fabrics are very cool and absorbent, but wrinkle very easily unless mixed with woven fibers. Linen is one of the oldest textile fibers. Learn more about flax

Ligneah: an artificial leatherette made using wooden sheets. Learn more about Ligneah.

loom: a machine used to weave fabrics.

Back waist length: the size on a body, taken from the top of the spine at the base of the neck to the waist.

Lyocell: this fiber produced from the cellulose of the wood pulp of hardwood trees such as eucalyptus is typically classified as a cousin fiber of rayon. Lyocell shares many properties with other cellulosic fibers such as cotton, linen, ramia and rayon. It is soft, absorbent, very strong and resistant to wrinkles; can be machine washed, hand washed or dry cleaned, drapes well and can be dyed in many colors, as well as simulating a variety of textures such as suede, leather or silk. More information on lyocell.

M

Chain link: a type of knitted fabric structure in which threads are formed in stitches lengthwise. There are two basic types: weft knits and warp knits. Warp stitches are knitted with intertwined loops arranged in a longitudinal direction, while weft loops have their loops intertwined in the width or weft direction. Warp knits are generally less elastic than weft knits. Common examples of warp knits are tricot knits and Raschel knits.

Mesh (circular): a weft knitting process in which the fabric is a tube, with the threads running continuously around the fabric. Double knit fabrics are produced on a circular knitting machine equipped with two sets of snap needles placed at right angles to each other.

Mesh (flat or single): a knitting process in which the fabric is flat in shape. The threads run back and forth across the fabric. The shape can be added in the manufacturing process by increasing or decreasing the loops or stitches. The complete garments are made on a knitting machine.

Mesh (warp): a type of knitting in which the threads generally run lengthwise in the fabric. The yarns are prepared as warps on beams. Examples of this type of knitting include tricot, Milanese, and Raschel.

Malai: an artificial leatherette made using coconut fruit water. Learn more about Malai.

Mesh (texture): a type of knitting, where one thread countsnuo runs transversely in the fabric creating all the rings in a single path. The types of weft knitwear are circular and flat.

Hand of the fabric: is the term used to evaluate some characteristics of the fabric or yarn (softness, stiffness, softness, volume) using the simple touch of the hand. Learn more about the hand of the fabric

Phase change materials: a hydrophilic compound applied to a fiber or fabric that results in superior breathability and a moisture management system within the fabric that helps maintain a comfortable body temperature when the garment is worn.

Cane brand: a fabric defect identified as a mark or bar or uneven spacing between groups of threads along the width of the fabric. This disturbance is caused by defective or damaged rods or by improper adjustment of the hoop or threads in the structure of a fabric when the fabric is manufactured.

Madras: one of the oldest products on the market is a plain weave lightweight cotton fabric with a striped or checked pattern. This type of fabric is usually imported from India. The final uses are shirts and suits for men and women.

Matelassé: a medium to heavy luxury fabric made with a double-woven structure to create a padded or quilted surface. Common end uses are upholstery, drapery, and evening wear.

Melton: a heavy, hard and simple cloth, used for overcoats, uniform fabrics, hunting clothes.

Mercerization: process of treating a cotton thread or fabric, in which the fabric or thread is dipped in a solution of caustic soda and subsequently neutralized into acid. The process causes a permanent swelling of the fiber, resulting in greater luster on the surface of the fabric, greater affinity for dyes and greater resistance.

Merino: a type of wool that comes from purebred Merino sheep. The best Merino wool is Italian.

Lace: light fabric that is obtained (by hand or by machine) by weaving threads of all kinds. It is mainly used to pack or garnish women's or household linen.

mesh: a type of fabric characterized by its open net-like appearance and the spaces between the threads. Mesh comes in a variety of constructions including woven, knit, lace or crochet fabrics.

Blend of fabrics: combination of two or more types of staple fibers in one yarn to obtain color blends, dye variations, better performance characteristics. Blends of natural and artificial fibers are today more important than ever and their number is practically unlimited.

Micro-encapsulation: a method of enclosing polymeric additive materials in microscopic capsules, which can then be released under certain conditions to improve performance.

Microfibers: Fibers made using microfiber technology produce fibers that weigh less than 1,0 denier. Fabrics made with these extra-fine fibers offer delicate drape and incredible softness. In comparison, microfibers are twice as fine as silk, three times finer than cotton, eight times finer than wool, and a hundred times finer than a human hair. Currently four types of microfibers are produced. These include acrylic microfibers, nylon microfibers, polyester microfibers, and rayon microfibers.

Microfleece: a soft fabric with a velvety feel.

Microporous: a coating on a fabric that breathes through microscopic pores.

Sustainable fashion: Sustainable fashion, also called ecological and ethical fashion, involves the design and production of clothing, furnishing accessories and other textile products in a sustainable way, which takes into account any environmental and socio-economic impacts.

Modal: this fiber produced from the cellulose of the wood pulp of hardwood trees such as beech, is typically classified as a cousin fiber of rayon. More information on modal.

Modacrylic: a fiber produced similar to acrylic in characteristics and final uses. Modacrylics have a higher resistance to chemicals and burning than acrylic, but they also have a lower ironing temperature and a higher specific weight than acrylic.

mohair: the long, shiny and strong hair fibers of the Angora goat. End uses include sweaters, coats, dresses and scarves.

Moire: a corded fabric, usually made of silk or one of the woven fibers, which has a characteristic wavy pattern where bright and dark contrasting effects are observed.

Monk's Cloth: a heavy cotton fabric that uses the basket weave variation of the regular weft. Used for draperies and linings, the monk's cloth is an example of a 4 × 4 basket weave. It has poor dimensional stability and tends to get tangled.

Monofilament: a single filament of a fiber produced, usually made in a denier greater than 14. Monofilaments are usually spun individually, rather than extruded as a group of filaments through a spinneret and spun into a yarn. End uses include hosiery and sewing thread.

Muskin: an artificial leatherette made using mushrooms. Learn more about Muskin.

Muslin: an inexpensive, medium weight, plain weave, low thread count (less than 160 threads per square inch) cotton sheets. In its unfinished form, it is commonly used in fashion design to make trial garments for preliminary fit.

mylar: a polyester film used to cover a metallic yarn.

N

Tape: a thread or tightly woven fabric of varying width, commonly one quarter to three inches, with selvedge edges, primarily or rayon, silk or velvet, and used for weaving, embellishment, trimming, etc.

nainsook: a lightweight plain weave cotton fabric usually finished to create sheen and a soft hand. Common end uses are baby clothing, blouses, and underwear.

Nano-technology: complex technology involving nano-sized materials and combining sciences such as biology, chemistry, physics and engineering.

Nanofiber: refers to fibers that are typically produced through an electrospinning process, which spins fibers in diameters ranging from 10 nm (nanometers) to several hundred nanometers, but usually less than 1.000 nm. In scientific terms, nanofibers are generally considered to be less than one micron in diameter. The name nanofiber comes from the nanometer, which is a scientific unit of measurement that represents one billionth of a meter, or three to four atoms in width. Current uses of nanofiber technology are in the fields of medical products, consumer products, industrial products and high-tech applications for the aerospace sector, capacitors, transistors, drug delivery systems, battery separators, energy storage, filtration, fuel cells and information technology.

Sun: a fuzzy, fur-like feeling created when the ends of the fibers extend from the base structure of the fabric to the surface of the fabric. The fabric can be dozed on one or both sides.

Napping: the raising of fibers on the front of the goods by means of hinges or rollers covered with paper garments (steel wires) that are about one inch high. The action with both methods lifts the protruding fibers and causes the finished fabric to provide more warmth to the wearer, makes the fabric more compact, causes the fabric to become softer in the hand or smoother to the touch, increases the durability and covers the small areas between the weaves or the warp and the filling.

NewLife: a nylon made with recycled plastic from separate collection. Learn more about NewLife.

Ninon: a lightweight, plain weave fabric made of silk or woven fibers, with an open knit-like appearance. End uses include evening dresses and curtains.

Novelty Yarn: a yarn intentionally produced to have a special or unique effect. These effects can be produced by twisting irregular single threads, using yarns that contain irregularities, or by twisting yarns that contain a variation in color.

Nylon: produced in 1938, the first fully synthetic fiber is developed. Known for its high strength and excellent resilience, nylon has superior abrasion resistance and high flexibility. A fiber produced in which the substance that forms the fiber is a long-chain synthetic polyamide.

Ripstop nylon: plain weave fabric, lightweight, wind and water resistant. Wide-ribbed yarns stop rips without adding excess weight to active sportswear and outdoor gear like sleeping bags and tents. Fabric originally used for parachutes and sails, now finds favor in fashion and accessories.

Nytrile: a manufactured fiber, most often used in sweaters or pile fabrics, where little or no pressing is recommended, as the fiber has a low softening or melting point. However, it has also been used successfully in blends with wool in order to minimize shrinkage and improve shape retention in garments.

Dictionary OPQ

Textile dictionary from letter O to Q. Use the table of contents to quickly jump from letter to letter, or use the key combination CTRL + F to open your browser's search bar and quickly find the word you are looking for.

O

Eyelet: a type of fabric that contains patterned cutouts, around which stitching or embroidery can be applied to prevent the fabric from fraying. Often worked with a buttonhole stitch.

Olefin (polyolefin / polypropylene): a fiber characterized by lightness, high strength and abrasion resistance. Olefin is also good at transporting moisture, creating a breathable action. End uses include sportswear, rope, indoor and outdoor rugs, patio furniture and upholstery.

Orange Fiber: this fiber is produced using citrus waste as raw material and is very similar to silk. Learn more about Orange Fiber.

Warp: in all fabrics, this is the set of thread that runs longitudinally towards the machine, parallel to the selvedge and intertwined with the padding. It is the set of threads wound together on a beam for the purpose of weaving or knitting in the warp.

Nettle: an organic and sustainable fiber derived from coarse wild grass.

Organdie: a simple, sheer and light weave fabric with a medium-high yarn count. End uses include blouses, dresses, and curtains / drapes.

Organza: a plain weave, light and transparent fabric, made of silk, rayon, nylon or polyester. The fabric is mainly used in evening and wedding dresses for women.

Osnaburg: a strong, plain weave medium to heavy weft fabric, usually made from a cotton or cotton / polyester blend. Lower grades of unfinished fabric are used for industrial purposes such as bags, sacks, pipe liners. Higher grades of finished osnaburg can be found in mattress covers, slipcovers, workwear, and clothing.

ottomans: a tightly woven plain weave ribbed fabric with a slightly shiny hard surface. The ribbed effect is created by weaving a finer silk or warp yarn made from a heavier filler yarn, usually made from cotton, wool, or waste yarn. In construction, the heavier filler yarn is completely covered by the warp yarn, thus creating the ribbed effect. The end uses of this fabric include coats, dresses, dresses, upholstery and draperies.

oxfords: Soft, somewhat porous and rather sturdy cotton shirt with a shiny silk-like finish. Made on small repeated weaves, the fabric gets dirty easily due to the soft and voluminous padding. The fabric is available in all white or can have stripes with small geometric designs between these stripes.

P

Chinchilla cloth: a heavy conventional herringbone weave coat with a spongy surface that is rolled into small tufts or bumps to revive the chinchilla fur. Usually made from a wool or wool / cotton blend in lining weights.

Paisley: a drop-shaped fantasy printed motif used in men's suits, blouses and ties.

Gingham: medium weight plain weave fabric with warp and padding dyed yarns. End uses include dresses, shirts and curtains.

Shark skin: a medium-weight, low-sheen fabric with a herringbone texture. It is most commonly found in men's combed clothing; however, it can also be found in a plain weave structure of acetate, triacetate and rayon for women's sportswear.

Combing: the combing process is a further step beyond carding. In this process the fibers are arranged in a highly parallel shape and the additional short fibers are removed, producing high quality yarns with excellent strength, fineness and uniformity.

Beads: variety of lace or insert embroidery with rows of holes through which the ribbon is tied.

Camel hair: a form of shiny and extremely soft wool. As it is expensive, it is often used in blends with wool to make coats, dresses, sweaters, blankets and oriental rugs. Natural colors range from light brown to brownish black.

Air permeability: the porosity of a fabric estimated by the ease with which the air passes through it. Air permeability measures the heat of the blankets, the air resistance of the parachute sheet, the wind resistance of the sailcloth, etc. It is measured with specific equipment.

Peau de Soie: a draped satin fabric with a heavy weave in twill, made of silk or woven fiber and used for wedding dresses and evening dresses.

Percale: medium weight, plain weave cotton-like fabric with medium count (180 to 250 threads per square inch). End uses include sheets, blouses and dresses.

Permeability: a textile feature that allows air, water and water vapor to penetrate and pass through it.

Down filled comforter: the soft, fluffy fiber or feathers of ducks, geese or other water birds. Mainly used for the insulation of outdoor clothing.

Protection payment: the term derives from the old French, las, in Latin, laquens, which means noose, or to trap. A single yarn can produce a woven fabric or article as it twists in different directions to produce a porous material.

Pick: a filler yarn that runs crosswise between selvedges in fabrics. The pick intersects with the warp (or longitudinal thread) to form a woven fabric.

Pile: a lightweight fabric with a thick surface. It can be a fleece or plush fabric, or a woven or knitted construction. End uses include coats, jackets, blankets, etc. Fleece fabrics come in a variety of constructions, provide good durability, warmth, wind resistance, breathability and weather protection.

Fleece fabric: a fabric in which some yarns protrude from a foundation weave and form a pile on the surface. Fleece threads can be cut or uncut in the fabric. Corduroy is an example of fleece fabrics with cut fill.

Knitted Fleece: a type of knit construction that uses a special yarn or sliver woven into a standard knit base. This construction is used in the formation of faux fur fabrics, in special linings for cold weather clothing such as jackets and coats, and in some floor coverings.

Fleece Weave: a type of decorative weft in which a pile is formed of additional warp or filler threads intertwined in such a way as to form loops on the surface or face of the fabric. The loops can be left uncut, or they can be cut to expose the ends of the thread and produce cut pile fabric.

Pill Resistant: the ability of a fabric to hinder or avoid the formation of small balls of fibers (pills) that appear on the surface of the fabric.

Pilling: a tangle of fibers that appears on the surface of a fabric, as a result of wear, abrasion or friction accountsnuo or rubbing on the surface of the fabric.

Piñatex: an artificial leatherette made using pineapple leaves. Learn more about Piñatex.

Pique: a medium weight fabric, knitted or woven, with embossed patterns including ropes, wales, waffles. Woven versions have cords that run lengthwise or in the direction of the warp. The knitted versions are constructions in double-knit fabric, created on special circular machines.

Plaid: a pattern consisting of colored bars or stripes crossing at right angles, comparable to a Scottish tartan. The plaid infers a multi-colored pattern with rather large pattern repeats.

plain weave: a basic weft, which uses a simple alternative interweaving of warp and filler threads. Each filler thread successfully passes over and under each warp thread, alternating each row. Any type of yarn made from any type of fiber can be produced in a plain weave fabric.

Plied Yarn: a twist of two or more single threads in a single operation.

Pleated: a light, plain weave fabric made of cotton, rayon or acetate, characterized by a rippled stripe effect, usually in the direction of the warp. The wrinkled effect is created by applying a caustic soda solution, which shrinks the fabric in the areas of the fabric where it is applied. Plissé is similar in appearance to the seersucker. End uses include dresses, shirts, pajamas, and bedspreads.

Plies: two or more threads that have been twisted together. An automobile tire fabric yarn can be 9, 10 or 11 ply.

PLA (polylactic acid fiber): a synthetic substance produced by the fermentation of vegetable sugars derived mainly from corn, which is then transformed into a fiber. Lightweight, hypoallergenic and providing greater UV protection than polyester, it uses about half the energy needed to produce other synthetic polymers and is biodegradable.

Polyester: a fiber introduced in the early 50s and today more used all over the world. The fiber-forming substance in polyester is any synthetic long-chain polymer. Polyester has high strength (although slightly lower than nylon), excellent elasticity, high abrasion resistance, and resists shrinkage, stretching and wrinkles. The low absorbency of polyester allows the fiber to dry quickly. Polyester fabrics are used in clothing and home furnishings (e.g. bedspreads, sheets, drapes and curtains). Industrial polyesters are used in ropes, tire reinforcements, seat belts and plastics. The polyester fiber filling is used as filling in cushions, quilts and pillows.

Polymer: a high molecular weight structure, which is the substance from which the fibers are made. Fiber is created by connecting molecular units together in a chain called monomers.

Polypropylene (olefin or polyolefin): a fiber produced characterized by lightness, high strength and abrasion resistance. Polypropylene is also good at carrying moisture, creating a breathable action. End uses include thermal underwear, sportswear, rope, indoor and outdoor rugs, patio furniture, and upholstery.

Pongee: the most common form is a light, plain weave, silk-like fabric with a slub effect. End uses include blouses, dresses, etc.

Rome Bridge: a fabric made with a double knit construction, usually produced in one color rather than color patterns. This plain fabric has a stretchy quality with a slight horizontal line. The fabric looks the same on both sides.

Poplin: a fabric made using a ribbed variation of the plain weave. The construction is characterized by having a slight ridge effect in one direction, usually filling. Poplin was associated with casual wear, but as the 'world of work' has become more relaxed, this fabric has developed into a staple of men's wardrobes, being used frequently in casual trousers.

Lawn (fabric): a light and fine cloth made with carded or combed yarn, linen or cotton. The fabric has a wrinkle resistant finish. Lawn linen is synonymous with handkerchief linen. Lawn cotton is a similar type of fabric, which can be white, plain or printed.

Durable Press: more or less interchangeable with the term permanent printing, but actually more precise. Durable press implies that the shape holding properties of a garment are excellent and durable for the entire life of the garment.

Ready for printing (PFP): for polyester, it means the fabric has been laundered, is oil-free and contains no added fabric softeners.

UV Protection (UPF): designed for sun protection, these specialty fabrics are manufactured for their level of ultraviolet (UV) protection. A nuoThe structure of the fabric, combined with a high number of deniers (related to the number of threads per inch) can help produce sun protection properties in fabrics.

Purl stitch: a basic stitch used in weft knitting, which produces knitted fabrics that look the same on both sides. Purl stitch is often used in combination with knit and rib stitch to produce a knitted fabric design. Sweaters, knitted fabrics for babies and children's clothing, knitted fabrics for specialized sportswear and voluminous knitted fabrics are commonly made using the purl stitch.

Dotted Swiss: a lightweight, pure cotton or cotton blend fabric with a small flocked polka dot pattern printed on the surface of the fabric. The end uses of this fabric include blouses, dresses, baby clothes and curtains.

Q

Quilting: a fabric construction in which a layer of down or fiber fill is placed between two layers of fabric and then held in place by stitching or sealing in a regular, consistent and all-over pattern on the products.

Dictionary from the RST

Textile dictionary from letter R to T. Use the index of contents to quickly jump from letter to letter, or use the key combination CTRL + F to open the search bar of your browser and quickly find the word you are looking for.

R

Satin: it is one of the three main textures used in the textile sector, the softest, most luxurious and most recognizable. Formerly made only in silk, today it is reproduced in polyester rayon and viscose. Learn more about satin.

Ramie (ramia): a sustainable fiber, similar to flax, taken from the stem of a plant grown in East Asia and China. It is 3 to 5 times stronger than cotton, extremely absorbent and dries quickly. It is often used for underwear. More information on ramia

Raffia: a natural fiber collected from the inner bark that surrounds the stem of some dicotyledonous plants. Most raffia fibers are obtained from herbs grown in agriculture, including flax, jute, hemp and ramia, but they can also include wild plants. These fibers typically have a higher tensile strength than other types, and are therefore used for fabrics such as ropes, yarns, paper, composites and canvas. Although labor-intensive, its production is considered more environmentally friendly than the production of petroleum-based synthetic fibers.

District: a fiber produced composed of regenerated cellulose, derived from cotton waste or from the wood pulp of pine, spruce or hemlock trees. Today, various names for rayon fibers are taken from different manufacturing processes. The two most commonly used manufacturing methods for rayon are the cuprammonium process and the viscose process. Rayon is soft and absorbent. The end uses of rayon include shirts, dresses, and pants.

Raschel Knit: a warp knitted fabric in which the resulting knitted fabric resembles handmade crochet fabrics, lace fabrics and nets. Raschel warp knits contain inlaid yarns as well as columns of knitted stitches.

Heat / weight ratio: a measure used to evaluate the effectiveness of an insulation product in relation to weather conditions and the environment. The isolation with the best score is lower. Down offers the best warmth to weight ratio of nearly all other insulation materials, which is why you'll see down garments and sleeping bags as the primary choice for use in cold weather.

Wrinkle recovery: similar to resilience. It is the ability of a fabric to recover after being twisted, wrinkled or distorted in any way. Some fabrics are able to eliminate wrinkles thanks to their own elasticity. Wool is among these, as are thermoplastic fibers and chemically treated cottons. Laboratory tests are done to determine the amount or degree of recovery of a tissue from wrinkles.

Moisture recovery: the amount of water that a completely dry fiber will absorb from the air under a standard condition of 70 degrees F and a relative humidity of 65%. Expressed as a percentage of the weight of dry fiber.

Network: an open knit fabric of rayon, nylon, cotton or silk; made in a variety of geometric shaped meshes of different sizes and weights, matched to various end uses. The net is made by knotting the intersections of thread or rope to form the mesh.

Stain resistance: properties of fiber or fabric that highlight resistance to stains.

Tear resistance: the force required to tear a fabric, measured by the force required to initiate or continue a tear in a fabric. Expressed in pounds or grams, the most commonly used method of determining tear strength is the Elmendorf tear test procedure.

Tensile strength (breaking strength): the resistance shown by a fiber, yarn or fabric to resist breaking under pressure. It is the actual number of KG of resistance a fabric will give before the material breaks on the testing machine.

Abrasion resistance: the degree to which a fabric is able to resist loss of appearance due to surface wear, rubbing, and other frictional actions.

Repellency: the ability of a fabric to resist things like getting wet and stained with water, stains, dirt, etc.

Resilience: the ability of a fabric to return to its original shape after being twisted, squeezed, wrinkled or distorted in any way.

Chlorine retention: some resin treatments or finishes based on cotton, rayon, nylon or blended fabrics can cause goods to retain varying amounts of chlorine when washed or bleached with chlorine.

Flame retardant: a chemical applied to a fabric or incorporated into the fiber at the time of manufacture, which significantly reduces the flammability of the fabric.

rib-knit: a basic stitch used in weft knitting where knitting machines require two sets of needles operating at right angles to each other. Rib knits have a very high degree of elasticity in the transverse direction. This knitted fabric is used for complete garments and for specialized uses such as sleeve bands, neck bands, sweater straps and special trims. Lightweight rib knit sweaters offer a snug fit.

Ring Spun Cotton: this cotton yarn is created through a process that twists the cotton fibers from the seed of the plant. Ring-spun cotton yarn is made by continuously twisting and thinning the strands of the fiber to create a very fine string of the cotton fibers. Ring Spun Twist produces a stronger cotton yarn than conventional cotton yarn, with a noticeably softer hand. The number of times the fibers are twisted determines the softness of the yarn.

S

Will: a texture characterized by diagonal lines, usually at a 45 degree angle. In a twill the warp threads produce the diagonal effect. It is one of the three basic textures. Twill weave is the most common weave for lower weight uniform fabrics.

Welding: There are two basic methods of applying glue joints. The first method uses an adhesive film and the application of heat to glue or laminate two substrates together. The second method involves gluing or fixing two fabrics, using ultrasound technology. The creation and channeling of high frequency vibratory waves causes a rapid build-up of heat in the synthetic fabrics to create the bond.

Sanforized®: registered trademark of The Sanforize Company, which is the most widely recognized shrinkage control method used by the world's leading textile industries. The process maintains residual shrinkage of no more than 1% in both directions (according to US standard wash test CCC-T-191a), despite repeated washes.

Suggestion: a manufactured fiber that has excellent resistance to sunlight and weather and is used in patio furniture, upholstery and carpets.

Saxony: originally a high quality upholstery fabric made from saxony merino wool.

Sasawashi: a sustainable fabric derived from a blend of Japanese paper and kumazasa grass. Saswashi is a beautiful fabric that has a soft touch similar to cashmere or Egyptian cotton, but has a dry feel like linen. It does not create pills or lint and is twice as absorbent as cotton. It is said to have natural anti-allergic and antibacterial properties.

Satin Weave: a variant of the satin weft, produced by floating filler yarns on warp yarns. The fabric is made with a satin weft with 5 or 8 stems with warp or filling effects.

satin weave: a basic weft, characterized by long floats of yarn on the face of the fabric. The threads are intertwined in such a way that there is no visible and defined pattern of interlacing and, in this way, a smooth and somewhat shiny surface effect is achieved. The glossy surface effect is further enhanced through the use of high luster fibers which also have a low amount of twist. A true satin weave fabric always has warp threads floating on filler threads. The name satin originated in Zaytun, China. Satin fabrics were originally silk, and now simulations are made with acetate, rayon, and other man-made fibers.

Whitening: a process of bleaching fibers, yarns or fabrics by removing natural and artificial impurities to achieve light whites for the finished fabric, or in preparation for dyeing and finishing. Materials can be treated with chemicals or exposed to sun, air and moisture. Learn more about whitening

PTFE free (without polytetrafluoroethylene): a fabric or membrane composed of an environmentally safe compound that does not contain the chemical compounds of fluorine.

Without PFC (perfluorinated chemicals): this material is an organofluorinated compound devoid of carbon-fluorine bonds.

Arrow: the only natural fiber that comes in the form of filaments from 270 to 1.500 meters in length wrapped in the cocoon produced by the silkworm. Most of the silk is harvested from silkworms in intensive farming. Tussah silk, Ahimsa, or wild silk, is a thicker and shorter fiber produced by worms in their natural habitat. All silk comes from Asia, mainly China.

Ahimsa silk: silk is woven using hollow cocoons rather than collecting live moth pupae. Grown in forest trees, silk is spun after the silkworm turns into a moth and flies away leaving its cocoon. This type of silk takes its name from the Hindu, Buddhist and Jain doctrine of peace and non-violence.

Seamless Knitting: a unique circular knitting process, performed on Santoni or Sangiacomo knitting machines. This circular knitting process essentially produces finished garments with no side seams, requiring only minimal seam to complete the garment. Seamless knitting can turn yarn into complete garments in a fraction of the time it takes to produce traditional garments, minimizing traditional labor-intensive steps of sewing.

Seersuckers: a woven fabric that incorporates modification of tension control. In seersucker production, some of the warp yarns are always kept under controlled tension during weaving, while other warp yarns are in a relaxed state and tend to wrinkle as the filler yarns are placed. The result produces a rippled effect in the fabric. Seersucker is traditionally made into summer sportswear such as shirts, trousers and casual dresses.

Selvage or Selvedge: the thin compressed edge of a fabric that runs parallel to the warp threads and prevents fraying. It is usually applied using stronger yarns and a tighter construction than the rest of the fabric. Also called listing, self-edge, raw edge.

Serge: one of the oldest basic terms in textiles, now implies any smooth face cloth made with a twill texture.

Shantung: a plain weave silk fabric, characterized by a ribbed effect, deriving from slub yarns used in the direction of the warp or weft. End uses include suits and dresses.

Sisal: a strong Liberian fiber that comes from the leaves of the Agave plant found in the West Indies, Central America and Africa. End uses include ropes and twine.

Leatherette: a material with visual, tactile and technical characteristics similar to leather of animal origin, but of artificial origin. Learn more about leatherette

Combed system: the textile process of producing yarn from staple fibers that are over 3 inches in length. The main operations are carding, combing, drawing and spinning.

Silver Knitting: a type of circular knitting in which a high-pile fabric is knitted.

Slow Fashion: the opposite of fast fashion. Supports the design, manufacture and purchase of quality garments that will last longer; slower production schedules; reduced carbon footprints; use of sustainable materials. There are several ways in which consumers reject fast fashion, including purchasing sustainable and ethically made clothes; buy locally produced products, buy second-hand or vintage garments; buy clothes less often to slow down the rate of consumption and waste of fashion. Learn more about Slow fashion

Soft Shells: soft shell fabrics combine the advantages of hard shell fabrics with a breathable, flexible and comfortable fabric. Stretch fabrics with DWR treatment.

Soil Release Finish: finish that aims to increase the absorbency of a fabric. on durable print mixes. The finish allows the stain to leave the fabric faster, increases the breathable action for better comfort, and therefore makes it easier to clean. Some dirt release finishes also provide dirt resistance and ease of dirt removal.

Soy: Also known as “vegetable cashmere”, soy fiber is a sustainable textile fiber obtained from soybean residues from tofu production. It is part of an effort to drive consumers away from petrochemical textiles and turn waste into useful products. Soy fiber has superior heat retention, moisture transmission and bacterial resistance; it is also soft, smooth and light. With a texture similar to cashmere, it has a silky sheen and the same moisture absorption as cotton. It is typically used for underwear, socks, scarves, sheets, and yoga / sportswear.

Color fastness: the ability of a fabric to retain its color and resist fading when exposed to water / washing, sun, light, atmosphere or other environmental conditions.

Brushing: a finishing process for fabrics in which brushes or other abrasive devices are used to allow the fibers in the yarns to be lifted to create a "pile" or nuova surface structure.

Spandex: a manufactured elastomeric fiber that can be repeatedly stretched over 500% without breaking, returning to its original length. This fiber is used extensively in the production of garments to create elasticity.

SPF (Sun Protection Factor): SPF measures the effectiveness of sunscreen on the body. testing for SPF is done using a living organism or body to measure the time it takes for the skin to redden without coverage or protection.

Spinneret: a device of the metal nozzle type with very fine holes used in the spinning process of the fibers produced. The spinning solution is forced or extruded through the small holes to form count filament fibersnuo. The holes in the spinneret can vary in diameter to produce fibers of various deniers.

Sponging: pre-shrinking process which involves humidifying wool and combed fabrics with a sponge. The process is done by rolling damp muslin or steaming. This procedure is performed at the fabric factory prior to cutting.

Sponge: a typical uncut loose weave fabric. This fabric is formed using two sets of warp threads. One of these series of warp threads is under very little tension; when the fill threads are packed in place, the low tension threads are pushed back along with the fill threads and loops are formed. Typical uses include towels, bathrobes, and clothing.

Spot Weave: a woven construction where patterns are incorporated at spaced intervals through the use of extra warp and / or extra filler yarns that are placed in specific areas. These yarns are woven into the fabric by means of a dobby or jacquard attachment.

Substrate (support): fabric on which upholstery or other fabrics are applied.

Surah: a light and shiny fabric with a twill weave. Surah is the fabric of ties, dresses and furnishings, available in silk, polyester and rayon.

Cork: a material extracted from some oak plants (the bark). Learn more about cork

T

Taffeta: a lustrous, medium weight, plain weave fabric with a slight ribbed appearance in the direction of the padding (crosswise) and usually with a sheen on the surface. For formal wear, taffeta is the perfect choice.

Toughness: this is a property of the fiber that measures strength. The property is determined by the force required to break the fiber. Typically, this is the measure in grams per denier (g / d).

Infusion technology: a polymer-infused construction process that reinforces the fabric of outer garments where they are most abused. The technology blends polymers, penetrates deep into the internal fibers and surrounds them to form a permanent bond. This robust and resilient matrix ensures a highly wear-resistant surface while allowing the fabric to remain light and flexible. The polymer-infused process eliminates the need for heavier abrasion overlays, tapes and bindings and adds greater strength to the most crucial points of the garment, which greatly extends the life of the garment.

Weaving: the process of forming a fabric on a loom by weaving the warp (longitudinal threads) and the padding (transverse threads) perpendicular to each other.

Basket Weave: a variant of the simple weave structure, formed by treating two or more warp yarns and / or two or more filler yarns as a unit in the weaving process. The yarns in a basket weave are laid in the flat woven structure and maintain a parallel relationship. It is possible to produce both balanced and unbalanced basket fabrics. Learn more about basket weave

High visibility fabrics: fabrics that contain fluorescent materials to make the wearer visible in low light conditions. These fabrics have the ability to reflect incoming lights making them glow in the dark.

Combed fabric: a tightly woven fabric made using only long fibers, worsted wool or wool blend yarns. The worsted yarn has a smooth surface and is spun from uniformly combed staple fibers. The fabric has a hard and smooth surface. Gabardine and surge are examples of combed fabrics. A common end use is men's tailored suits.

Woven fabric: fabrics composed of two series of yarns. A series of threads, the warp, runs along the length of the fabric. The other set of threads, the padding or the weft, is perpendicular to the warp. The fabrics are held together by weaving the warp and filler threads on top of each other.

Non-woven fabric: a textile structure held together by the interlocking of fibers in a random network, made by mechanical, chemical, thermal or solvent means. Generally, crimped fibers of 0,75 to 4,5 inches in length are used.

Ribbed fabric: one of the variants of normal weaving that is formed using 1) heavy yarns in the warp or fill direction 2) a substantially greater number of threads per inch in an opposite direction than the other 3) several yarns grouped together. Ribbed fabrics are all characterized by having a slight crest effect in one direction, usually the padding. Examples of this construction include double-height fabric, poplin, taffeta, faille, shantung, and woven rope.

Coated fabrics: fabrics that have been coated with a lacquer, paint, rubber, polyvinyl chloride or polyethylene plastic resin, or other substance to make them more durable or impervious to water or other liquids.

Composite fabric: engineered fabric composed of two or more components. One component is often a strong fiber such as fiberglass, Kevlar® or carbon fiber which gives the material its tensile strength, while another component (often called a matrix) is often a resin, such as polyester or epoxy which binds together the fibers.

Compression fabric: a high tenacity stretch fabric that, when worn, provides the muscles with a “compression” fit that reduces vibration, reduces fatigue and keeps muscles energized. The fabric is usually made in a knit construction, using a series of gradient fibers with an open knit inner surface to create a breathable environment.

Burnt fabric: a brocade pattern effect created on the fabric through the application of a chemical (instead of color) during the calcined printing process. Sulfuric acid, mixed into a colorless paste, is the most widely used chemical. With this method it is possible to create many simulated effects. In these cases, the chemical destroys the fiber and creates a hole in the fabric in a specific design. The fabric is then overprinted with a simulated embroidery stitch to create the eyelet effect.

Broadcloth: originally a shirt silk fabric named so because it was woven in widths greater than the normal 29 inches. Today, double-width fabric refers to a tightly woven, lustrous or plain-weave polyester / cotton blend fabric with a cross rib. It looks like poplin, but the rib is finer and the double-width fabric always has more cross threads (picks) than poplin.

Laminated fabric: a term used to describe fabrics that have been joined together through the use of a high strength reinforced canvas or base fabrics between two layers of flexible thermoplastic film. It can be bonded using the foam itself or some other material, such as adhesives, heat or chemical binders.

Knitted fabric: fabrics made with a single set of yarns, all in the same direction. Some knits have yarns that run along the length of the fabric, while others have yarns that run across the width of the fabric. Knitted fabrics are held together by wrapping the threads around each other. Knitting creates ridges in the resulting fabric.

PTFE fabric: a fabric made of polytetrafluoroethylene, such as Gore-Tex.

Woven fabric: a tight fabric made by crossing a number of strong threads diagonally, so that each thread passes alternately over or under one or more of the other supports. Typically used in shoelaces and suspenders. Also known as double knitting, this special knitting construction uses the addition of a second thread within the same stitch. The second thread is generally of a different color or type. During the knitting process, the second thread is placed under the first thread, so that each can be rolled onto a specific side of the fabric. In many cases, one thread / color appears on the face of the fabric and the other in contrast appears on the back.

High performance fabrics: fabrics made for a variety of end applications, providing functional qualities, such as moisture management, UV protection, anti-microbial, thermoregulation, and wind / water resistance.

Finished fabric: a fabric that has undergone all the necessary finishing processes and is ready to be used in the production of garments. These processes include bleaching, dyeing, printing, heat setting, etc.

Sateen fabric: this fabric is made with a satin weave with warp or fill effects made with low luster yarns, such as cotton or other staple fibers. The fabric is soft and smooth to the touch and a delicate sheen. Satin fabrics are often used for curtains and upholstery.

Satin fabric: a traditional fabric that uses a satin weave structure to achieve a shiny fabric face with a matte back. Satin is a traditional fabric for evening and wedding dresses. Typical examples of satin weave fabrics include: slipper satin, crepe-back satin, faille satin, bridal satin, moleskin and antique satin.

Smart fabrics: fabrics that can detect and react to changes in the environment, such as changes from mechanical, thermal, chemical, magnetic and other sources.

Spacer fabric: two separate fabric faces knitted independently and then connected by a separate spacer thread. These fabrics can be produced on both circular and straight machines. Spacer fabrics have properties of good breathability, crush resistance and a 3D appearance.

Khadi fabric: a fabric rich in revolutionary meanings, khadi is the symbol of India's resistance to the western fabrics brought by colonialism. The British in fact tried to block its production in every way, in order to export the fabrics of their production. Learn more about khadi fabric

Seamless technology: uses a binding agent to stick two pieces of fabric together and eliminates the need for sewing threads.

Sailcloth: any heavy, plain weave canvas fabric, usually cotton, linen, polyester, jute, nylon, etc. Used for sails and clothing (e.g. light sportswear).

Screen: fabric in cotton, linen or synthetic, made with simple weft in heavy yarn for industrial purposes. Also called "duck", although the term "canvas" usually refers to heavier and coarser constructions.

Tension Control Weave: a type of decorative weave, characterized by a wrinkled effect that occurs because the tension in the warp threads is intentionally varied before the filler threads are inserted into the fabric.

Tenting: a finishing process in which a fabric is stretched under tension on a loom as part of the manufacturing process. The tentering process will transport the fabric through a heated chamber and keep it taut so it dries evenly.

Terry Velor: a fleece-woven cotton fabric with an uncut pile on one side and a cut pile on the back. Terry velvet is appreciated for its soft and luxurious hand. Typical uses include towels, bathrobes, and clothing.

Texturing: a process performed with specialized machinery that creates bulk, stretches the yarn and creates a nuogoes aesthetic to the finished fabric.

Thermoregulation: the ability to maintain a constant temperature regardless of environmental conditions.

TirolWool: a wool taken exclusively from the sheep that live in the Tyrol. More information on TirolWool

Ticking: a tightly woven, very resistant fabric, usually in cotton, used to cover mattresses, springs, cushions and work clothes. The fabric can be made using a plain, satin or twill weave structure.

Tincture: yarn / fabric dyeing after weaving or knitting.

Dyed in the mass: a type of fiber dyeing in which colored pigments are injected into the spinning solution prior to the extrusion of the fiber. The fibers and yarns colored in this way are resistant to most destructive agents. This process uses no additional water and reduces pollution in the dye.

Tow: a large bundle of continuous filaments, such as polyester.

Plot: in woven fabric, the filler threads that run perpendicular to the warp threads. The three basic textures are Plain, Twill and Satin (satin). All other textures, no matter how intricate, employ one or more of these basic textures in their composition. Variations on base textures create a variety of different fabric surfaces and fabric strengths.

Transpiration: dispersion or diffusion of moisture or liquid through a given area by capillary action in a material.

Breathability: the movement of water or water vapor from one side of the fabric to the other, caused by capillary, chemical or electrostatic action.

Treated with resin: a finishing process associated with the application of synthetic chemical compounds to the fabric to provide resistance to wrinkles, washing and wear.

Sliver: bundle accountsnuo of untwisted fibers assembled loosely (not tightly). These are fibers that are woven into a single thread during the knitting process.

Traceability: the ability to trace products and their components through each stage of the supply chain, right up to raw materials.

Triacetate: a fiber produced by modifying cellulose. More acetate groups were added to create this fiber. Triacetate is less absorbent and less sensitive to high temperatures than acetate. It can be hand washed or machine washed and tumble dried.

Tricot Knit: a warp knitted fabric formed by intertwining adjacent parallel threads. The warp beam holds thousands of meters of yarns in a parallel arrangement, and these yarns are fed simultaneously into the knitting area. These fabrics are often used in women's lingerie items such as petticoats, bras, panties and nightdresses.

Tulle: a lightweight, extremely fine, machine-made mesh, usually with a hexagon-shaped mesh effect. End uses include dance costumes and veils.

Tweed: a medium to heavy, soft, twill weave wool fabric containing colored slub yarns. Common end uses include coats and dresses.

Twist: a term that applies to the number of turns and the direction in which two threads are turned during the manufacturing process. The twisting of the yarn brings the fibers together and makes them compact. Helps fibers adhere to each other, increasing the strength of the yarn. The direction and amount of twist of the yarn helps determine the look, performance, durability of both yarns and the next fabric or textile product. Single strands can be twisted to the right (S twist) or to the left (Z twist). Generally, worsted wool yarns are S-twist, while cotton and linen yarns are typically Z-twist. Twist is generally expressed as revolutions per inch (tpi), revolutions per meter (tpm) or revolutions per centimeter. (tpc).

Dictionary from the UVZ

Textile dictionary from letter U to Z. Use the index of contents to quickly jump from letter to letter, or use the key combination CTRL + F to open the search bar of your browser and quickly find the word you are looking for.

U

UL Down: Ultra Light Down is used in women's and men's jackets. the concept is to make the lightest and warmest insulation layer available. UL duvets weigh less than a T-shirt, block more wind, are warmer than even heavy fleece jackets, and compress to the size of a water bottle. This outerwear can be used when warmth is essential, minimum weight is important and space is precious.

Ultralight: term used to describe a fabric used in outerwear, which allows for a minimum volume and weight of the package. The lightweight, packable garments are versatile and offer protection from the elements. Some of these fabrics have a protective layer on the membrane, which guarantees durability. This means that garments made from ultralight fabrics do not need a separate lining.

Upcycling: upcycling involves converting or reusing old, worn or discarded textile products to make nuothere valuable products. Upcycling helps reduce the more than 12 million tons of garments that are disposed of in landfills every year.

UPF (ultraviolet protection factor): the UPF classification indicates the effectiveness of a fabric in blocking solar ultraviolet radiation. UPF ratings range from 15 to 50, higher ratings indicate more effective blocking and therefore better protection for the wearer. Fabrics with a test higher than UPF 50 are classified as UPF50 +. The UPF test involves exposing a fabric to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and measuring the amount of material transmitted through the sample. Different wavelengths of radiation in the UVR spectrum have different effects on human skin and this is taken into account when calculating the UPF rating.

V

Clo value: a unit of thermal resistance. The insulation needed to produce the heat needed to keep an individual comfortable at 21 degrees centigrade with air movement at 0,1 m / s.

Vegea: an artificial leatherette made using waste from wine production. Learn more about Vegea.

Fleece: wool shorn from any sheep or any animal in the wool category.

Velvet: a short pile fabric of medium weight in which the cut pile rises straight up in a succession of rows so close together that they create a uniform surface. It is woven using two sets of warp threads; the extra set creates the stack. Velvet, a luxurious fabric, is commonly made with a filamentary fiber for a high sheen and softness to the touch.

Corduroy: a fabric, usually cotton, that uses a cut weave structure. Extra sets of filler threads are woven into the fabric to form thread ridges on the surface.

Panné velvet: a type of light, shiny velvet fabric, usually silk or a woven fiber, in which the pile has been flattened in one direction.

Velcro: nylon material consisting of a surface of tiny hooks and a complementary surface with hairs that act as an adhesive for the hooks (tear-off system).

Velor: a medium weight, tightly woven fabric with thick pile. It can be made using a plain weave or satin weave structure. It looks like velvet, but has a lower cut. End uses include clothing, upholstery and drapery.

Velveteen: a fleece filler cloth where the fleece is made by cutting an extra set of filler threads that intertwine in formation. These yarns are woven or tied in the back of the material at intervals, weaving over and under one or more ends of the warp.

Vinyl: a synthetic fiber polymer based on polyvinyl chloride. In some countries vinyon fibers are referred to as polyvinyl chloride fibers and is similar in nature to vinyl. It can bind fibers and non-woven fabrics.

Viscose: the most common type of rayon. It is produced in much larger quantities than cuprammonium rayon, the other commercial type. Learn more about Viscose.

Voile: a fresh, light, cotton-like, plain weave fabric made with high twist yarns in a high yarn count construction. Similar in appearance to organza. Used in blouses, dresses and curtains.

W

Water Resistant (water resistant): fabric chemically treated to resist water or subjected to a "waxy treatment" to make it repellent. Not to be confused with water repellent. However, the terms are often used interchangeably.

Whipcord: a woven fabric with a very steep and compact twill look. The end uses of the fabric include woolen clothing, wool blends and different types of uniforms.

Wigwan: a converted cotton cloth, dyed black, brown or gray, with a smooth finish, used for the interlinings in men's garments to give body to the garment.

Wind Resistant: the ability of a fabric to act against or oppose the penetration of wind or air.

Wickability: the ability of a fiber or fabric to disperse moisture and allow it to pass through the surface of the fabric so that evaporation can occur.

Wrinkle Free: wrinkle resistance created through the use of a variety of finishes and treatments

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